Sunday, October 25, 2009

Alauddin Khalji introduces controversial policies

Alauddin Khalji, murdered his uncle Jalaluddin Firoze to gain the throne. It was his ambition to establish a vast empire. He introduced more controversial policies. All religious lands were confiscated and marriages between noble families were sanctioned by the King. The Emperor also introduced market and price control for foodgrains, cloth and other essentials. The land revenue was raised and made more efficient. Thus the Emperor enforced a highly centralised system of government.

He extended the boundaries of the Delhi Sultanate and brought almost the whole of India under his sway. Alauddin conquered Gujarat, Ranthambhor, Chitor, Warangal, the Hosala & Pandaya kingdoms. He also took effective measures to keep the Mongols out of his Indian empire, and so followed the policy of strengthening the defense force. Alauddin died in 1316.

Alauddin Khalji introduced the first permanent standing army in India. The emperor was the commander-in-chief of the army, followed by the Ariz-i-mamalik (war minister). Khaljis' army also introduced the huliya whereby a description was recorded of each soldier and the cavalry used the "dagh" (branding of the horses) with the royal insignia. These became permanent features in medieval Indian armies.

1290 - 1296Fîruz Shah II Khaljî
1296Ibrahim Shah I Qadir Khan
1296 - 1316Muhammad Shah I Ali Garshasp
1316Umar Shah
1316 - 1320Mubacicrak Shah
1320Khusraw Khan Barwari

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