Australian troops land at Saposa to engage Japanese forces at Waitavolo.
U.S. troops land at Lingayen Gulf on Luzon. 100,000 men are ashore in a single day, which is the largest Pacific operation so far.
U.S. troops establish a firm hold on the Luzon beachhead.
U.S. troops now hold 45 miles of the Lingayen Gulf coast.
USAAF B29 bombers destroy the Kawasaki aircraft works near Kobe, in Japan.
U.S. troops capture Clark Field, the main Japanese airbase on Luzon.
U.S. troops land unopposed to the Southwest of Manila.
MacArthur orders a containment in the northern Philippines, as the main effort is directed to the capture of Manila. The Australians land on the Japanese stronghold of New Britain, East of New Guinea.
U.S. troops capture the last Japanese naval base and airfield on Luzon.
Japanese forces are now trapped in the Manila rectangle, which is just 5,000yds by 2,000yds.
U.S. forces begin the intensive bombardment of Iwo Jima, 600 miles South of Japan. U.S. paratroops land on Corregidor Island, a Japanese stronghold in Manila Bay.
U.S. troops capture the whole of the Bataan Peninsula, which commands Manila Bay in Philippines.
After a heavy bombardment, 30,000 US Marines land on Iwo Jima, but suffer 2,420 casualties on the first day.
US paratroops spring 2,146 detainees from a Japanese camp South of Manila in surprise attack, during which 243 Japanese are killed for loss of just two U.S. killed and two injured. U.S. Marines storm Mt. Suribachi on Iwo Jima and raise the U.S. flag.
U.S. Marines capture a second airfield on Iwo Jima.
U.S. Marines land on Verde Island, to the Southeast of Manila.
U.S. Marines take Motoyama on Iwo Jima after a bloody battle. Corregidor is reported as clear of Japanese troops.
The fighting ends in Manila.
In an attempt to break the Japanese morale and wear away resistance to surrender, the USAAF begins the firebombing of Japans major city's with a raid by 334 B-29 Superfortress bombers on Tokyo, saturating the city's crowded downtown residential district. 16 and a half acres of Tokyo are burnt out and 100,000 people killed in a single night. The attacks by the USAAF continue against Tokyo for 10 days, before switching to Nagoya, Osaka and Kobe.
U.S. troops begin mopping up on Iwo Jima and launch heavy attacks in the North of the island.
U.S. troops report slow progress on Luzon in the Philippines.
U.S. Marines seize islands off coast of Okinawa in Pacific.
The last organised Japanese troops on Iwo Jima make a suicide attack. Total U.S. killed on Iwo Jima is 6,891, with more than 20,000 Japanese being killed and only 216 captured.
The U.S. Tenth Army, with 1,457 ships in support, invades Okinawa which is 325 miles from Japan. 60,000 troops land unopposed and establish an 8-mile bridgehead.
MacArthur is appointed as C-in-C of land forces in the Pacific.
A U.S. military government is established on Okinawa. Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov summons Japanese Ambassador Sato to inform him of the Soviet Union’s intention to renounce the 1941 neutrality pact between the two countries, thus signaling the failure of Japan’s increasingly strenuous efforts to ensure ongoing Soviet neutrality as the war’s tide turned against Japan.
The first land-based U.S. fighters from Iwo Jima overfly Japan.
U.S. landings begin on Le Island and three airfields are taken.
U.S. troops encounter very stiff resistance by the Japanese at ‘Bloody Ridge’ on Ie Island.
U.S. troops take ‘Bloody Ridge’ on Okinawa.
The U.S. campaign in the central Philippines officially ends with the capture of Cebu Island.
The Mexican Air Force's 201 Squadron arrives at Manila. In operations from 4 June, 1945 to the end of the war, the 201 flies 96 combat missions, mostly in support of ground troops. The 201 will be the only Mexican unit to see overseas combat in the country's history.
The Australians land on Tarakan Island off Borneo.
In a new offensive, the U.S. Tenth Army reaches the suburbs of Naha, the capital of Okinawa. Wewak is captured by the 6th Australian Division.
Very heavy fighting continues on Okinawa, with 125 Japanese aircraft being reported as shot down.
U.S. troops capture Del Monte air base on Mindanao. The Australians clear the Wewak peninsula in New Guinea.
USAAF B29's firebomb Nagoya, the heaviest raid on the Japanese homeland so far, with 3,500 tons of bombs being dropped, which destroys the Mitsubishi works.
The U.S. Tenth Army is now within 2,000 yds of Naha docks.
Heavy fighting continues on Okinawa, as the U.S. 77th Division takes ‘Chocolate Drop Hill’.
The Japanese begin the evacuation of Shuri, on Okinawa. Their losses so far are estimated at 48,000 killed out of a garrison of 85,000.
Sugar Loaf Hill’ on Okinawa is finally taken by U.S. troops after changing hands 11 times in the last few days.
The heaviest air raid so far on the Japanese homeland, see USAAF bombers drop 4,500 tons of incendiaries on Tokyo. 21% of the city is now burnt out, but the firebombing continues for next four days.
Japanese paratroops drop on the US airbases on both Okinawa and Ie.
The U.S. Joint Chiefs complete the plan for Operation 'Olympic', which sets the date to invade the Japanese mainland as no later that the 1st November 1945.
The U.S. Sixth Army takes Santa Fe on Luzon.
A White Paper on full employment is tabled to the Australian Parliament.
Osaka is totally burnt out by U.S. incendiaries.
U.S. troops make new landings on Okinawa as forces from the East and West coasts link up South of Shuri.
U.S. troops land on the Oriko peninsula of Okinawa.
Naha airbase on Okinawa is now being used to hit Japan.
The Japanese on the Oroku peninsula are reported as trapped. Tokyo radio says that 4.93m Japanese have been displaced by the bombing in the last three months.
The Australian 9th Division makes two landings in Brunei Bay, Borneo.
U.S. and Australian troops enter Brunei, in Borneo.
The USAAF begins the fireblitzing of 58 smaller Japanese cities.
The Australians are now in control of both sides of the Brunei Bay entrance.
Australians troops land at Lutong on Sarawak and gain 25 miles to the Seria oilfields.
Organised resistance on Okinawa ends after 82 days of the bloodiest fighting in the Pacific, during which 98,654 Japanese have been killed and 6,922 captured. U.S. loses were 6,990 killed and 29,598 wounded.
The U.S. Sixth Army reaches Aparri, effectively ending the campaign on Luzon.
The Japanese casualty figures on Luzon are 113,593 killed and U.S. loses are just 3,793.
The Australian 7th Division lands at Balikpapan on South East coast of Borneo after a 15-day bombardment.
MacArthur announces the liberation of the whole of the Philippines, although sporadic fighting continues until after the Japanese surrender. U.S. losses total 11,921 dead and 42,970 injured or captured. The Australian Prime Minister, John Curtin, dies.
Further allied landings are reported on Borneo. The Australians capture Maradi in the west of the island.
Chifley is elected leader of Labour Party and becomes Prime Minister of Australia.
The Australians take Prince Alexander Range in Borneo after an eight-week struggle.
A Proclamation to the Japanese people is issued by UK, U.S and China from Potsdam, which warns of devastation from the ‘final blows’ and calls for Japans unconditional surrender.
The Japanese reject the Potsdam ultimatum, so the Joint Chiefs order the plans for Japanese surrender to be drawn up.
U.S. B-29 "Enola Gay" drops a 3 metre long atomic bomb "Little Boy" on Hiroshima, Japan, killing an estimated 140,000 people in the first use of a nuclear weapon in warfare and wiping out 10 square kms. The U.S. First Army arrives on Luzon to prepare for final assault on Japan.
U.S. B-29 "Bocks Car" drops atomic bomb "Fat Man" on Nagasaki, Japan. Two-thirds of the city of 250,000 inhabitants is destroyed and 113,000 people die.
Surrender documents are sent to MacArthur in Philippines.
The Japanese Cabinet decide at a morning meeting in Imperial Palace to surrender to allies. An 8.10 pm reply to the allied ultimatum is handed to the Swiss Foreign Minister by the Japanese Minister in Berne. Truman calls a Press Conference at midnight to announce the 'Unconditional Surrender' of Japan. USAAF B29's launch the last air raid of the war against Kumagaya.
The Japanese Government resigns and the war minister commits suicide. MacArthur becomes the Supreme Commander for Allied Powers in the Pacific.
16 Japanese surrender envoys arrive on Ie and are taken to Manila for a 5 and a half hour discussion with MacArthur and his staff. Japanese troops on Java receive the cease-fire order.
Further negotiations in Manila. The Japanese leave at 1pm. MacArthur says that U.S. troops will land on the Japanese mainland within 10 days of signing the surrender.
The Japanese announce that the first U.S. landings will be on the 26th August. A non-fraternisation rule with the Japanese is to be enforced by the U.S.
MacArthur says the surrender will be signed in the Tokyo area on the 31st August.
The Japanese official casualty figures from air raids including A-bombs are 260,000 killed, 412,000 injured, 9.2 million homeless, along with 44 cities being completely wiped out.
The Japanese news agency says that all Japanese troops are to be out of the U.S. landing area by tomorrow.
Tokyo radio reports large numbers of people committing Hari-kiri in front of the Imperial Palace.
U.S. Marines and troops of 11th Airborne Division land in Tokyo Bay.
U.S. occupation of Japan begins, 11th Airborne Division lands at Atsugi airfield and 4th Marine Regiment lands at Kurihama naval base at Yokosuka and report ‘obsequious bows and smiles’ from soldiers and civilians.
As U.S. troops release POW's, many reports of systematic degradation are heard. Tokyo is reported as 85% bomb damaged, although this is not as bad as Berlin. Japanese garrison at Marcus Island surrenders to the Americans.
The formal Japanese surrender takes place aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
Emperor Hirohito asks his people to co-operate in setting up a peaceful state.
Japanese forces in Southwest Pacific surrender aboard HMS Glory.
The first American troops enter Tokyo itself.
Forty prominent Japanese are arrested for war crimes. Tojo, who ordered the raid on Pearl Harbour attempts suicide.
Mountbatten accepts the surrender of all Japanese troops in Southeast Asia.
The official Hiroshima and Nagasaki casualty figures are announced as between 110,000 and 165,00 dead.
59 Japanese are arrested on suspicion of war crimes.
MacArthur orders the end of Shinto as official religion of Japan.